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3.5 Principles of 4TeX installation from CD-rom 

Although there is an old diskette version of 4TeX the principles of installation described here are solely about installation from CD-rom. Installation from CD-rom is easy because it is almost completely automated.

4TeX version 4.71 usually does not't require any alteration to the files config.sys and autoexec.bat (i.e., for MS-Dos users). However, we advise MS-Dos users you to add the line

 mode lpt1 retry=r
to your autoexec.bat. This line will ensure that printing within the 4TeX workbench will work correctly. In order to prevent strange output after ending 4TeX we suggest adding mode bw80 or mode co80 to the autoexec.bat (depending on whether you have a monochrome or a color monitor). In rare cases you may have to add the line device = ansi.sys to your config.sys. 4TeX will test for ansi support and inform you if any change is needed.

3.5.1 Installation from CD-rom 

In the root of the 4TeX workbench CD-rom you can find several files that are worth reading:

readme.txt some information about the fourth edition of the CD-rom
readme.htm the same contents as in readme.txt but in html format with hyperlinks to other documents (to be used with a www browser)
index.htm an html file that lists all files in the current directory and links to all other directories and files on the CD-rom (to be used with a www browser)
licence.artsome software on the CD-rom uses this file to state the conditions under which a Package may be copied, such that the Copyright Holder maintains some semblance of artistic control over the development of the package, while giving the users of the package the right to use and distribute the Package in a more- or-less customary fashion, plus the right to make reasonable modifications
licence.gnuthe same as with licence.art many software is distributed under the GNU license statement
dir.lst a list of all the directories on the CD-rom
files.lst a complete list of all the files and directories on the CD-rom
install.txtthis file gives some information on how to install 4TeX
install.batthe 4TeX installation program (see below for more details)

The 4TeX installation program generates some files that are adapted specifically to the operating system your computer is running. These files will have a file extension that indicates the opperating system that is used. For instance a file containing values for the parameters that are user-specific (e.g. where TeX files are stored, what screen colors should be used) is created. This file will be indicated in this manual as texuser.<os> and the file extension <os> used here indicates the opperating system, i.e. texuser.<os> becomes texuser.dos for MS-Dosor os/2, texuser.w31 for WINDOWS 3.1, texuser.w95 for WINDOWS 95, and texuser.nt for WINDOWS NT.

In the root of the 4TeX workbench CD-rom the file install.bat will perform an automatic installation of 4TeX. This means that you do not need to create directories and set environment variables yourself but only have to go to the root of the CD-rom drive and type install (Windows 95 users can click the "Start" button, and then click "Run". In the Open box, type ?:\install where ? is the CD-rom drive letter). The installation program will check the opperating system you are using and ask if you want to change the automatic detection to something else (e.g. from WINDOWS 95 to MS-Dos).

Then the installation will set up the following directory structure:

where x is a path that you have to supply, e.g., c:\ or d:\text. When you specify a path that does not't exist the installation program will prompt if the supplied path has to be created.

After creating the directory structure 4TeX will check wether or not your video card is VESA compatible. This is used in combination with the emTeX viewers to swith to a higher screen resolution (default is 640 by 480 points).

The installation program will then ask if you want:

The next step is choosing which editor you will use. We highly recommend the TSE editor (shareware) for MS-Dos and the PFE editor for Windows 95/NT (freeware), but many other editors are supplied. In case none of these editors suite you, you can specify your own.

Because much documentation on the CD-rom is supplied in PDF and HTML format you are prompted to supply a HTML-viewer and a PDF-viewer. If you do not have one of them already installed you can choose one of the options in the selection menu. If you already have a viewer installed you can select this one by supplying the complete path and program name.3 If you do not know what to choose then do not install a viewer at this point. All the user settings are stored in the file texuser.<os> and can be changed/updated at any time later on.

To complete the installation the file texuser.<os> will be created in x\texfiles\4system\ and adapted to your setup. Then the files necessary for automatic font generation under 4TeX are copied (i.e. the files fontmap, psfonts.map, and psfonts.inf are copied to x\texfiles\4system). After copying some user files for the amSpell spell-checker (to x\texfiles\spell), the 4TeX batch file x\texfiles\4system\4tex<os>.bat is created.4 You can start 4TeX simply by typing/running x\texfiles\4system\4tex<os>. To complete the installation some tests are done and the results are displayed on screen and stored in x\texfiles\4system\install.<os>.

Note: The 4TeX batch file x\texfiles\4system\4tex<os>.bat enters three environment variable settings and then starts (with 4dos) the real 4TeX batch file ?:\emtex\btm\4tex.btm. If you decide to move the 4TeX user files to other directories you will have to update these three environment variables. The first variable 4TEXPATH indicates the file texuser.<os> file is stored. The second variable 4DOSPATH indicated where the 4dos command file can be found. The third environment variable 4TEXOS indicates which operating system 4TeX will run on (0 is MS-Dos or os/2, 1 is WINDOWS 3.X, 2 is WINDOWS 95, and 3 is WINDOWS NT).

Note: We suggest 4dos users to create an alias. For example

allows the 4dos user to simply by giving the command Note: Windows 95/NT users can create a shortcut on the desktop by clicking with the right mouse button on the desktop and selecting "New", "Shortcut". Then browse to the 4TeX batch file or simply type x\texfiles\4system\4texw95.bat. Type the name for the shortcut (default is 4TeXW95) and select an icon. After creating the shortcut some fine-tuning is worth considering: click with the right mouse button on the 4TeX icon and select "Properties", then on the "Program" tab sheet; select "close on exit". You can also change the icon to the 4TeX icon by clicking on the "change icon" button and select "Browse" and select the icon x\texfiles\4system\4tex4.ico. In the "Screen" tab sheet you can unselect the "Toolbar" setting.

Note: Windows 95/NT users should not quit 4TeXby clicking on the x in the upper-right corner of the screen, but by using the menu-option "Quit". If you not correctly close 4TeX some temporary files will not be deleted and the next time you start 4TeX it will complain that it thinks that you are already running 4TeX. If this is not the case press the [S] to start 4TeX anyway.

3.5.2 Installation on your hard disk 

In case you chose to "Run 4TeX entirely from hard disk" the installation program will copy all necessary files from the CD-rom to your hard disk, so you will not need the CD-rom to run 4TeX.

Although hard disk space is quite cheap these days it doesn't make sense to simply copy the entire content of the CD-rom to your hard disk. To enable you to setup a system in a more flexibel way we defined a set of modules. These (ascii) .mod5 files are stored in directory ?:\inst and they can be read and processed by the program insthd.bat, which you can find in the same directory.

InstHD expects two parameters. The first is the name (including path if not in the current directory) of a .mod file. The second parameter is the directory which is the root of your emTeX installation.

We advise you to run the program always from the directory ?:\inst to make sure it can find all necessary files. To install e.g., the LaTeX 2e module you could enter the following command:

Note that the directory c:\emtex must already exist.

The file latex2e.mod looks like this:

 LaTeX 2e formats and input files (complete) (13 MB)
 require ltxbase.mod
 latex\*.* /s
The first line is simply a comment that tells you what this module is supposed to install. All other lines either specify a set of files (possibly including files in subdirectory if followed by /s), or another .mod file which is required to make this module work. InstHD processes a module line by line, but you can make any mix of "require" statements and file specifications. The number of lines in one module is unlimited. Note that InstHD processes a "require" statement by recursively calling itself. Even multiple recursions (in case the required module requires yet other module, etc.) are possible.

The file specification(s) in a .mod file are relative to the directory \emtex on the CD-rom, so in the example above the third line specifies that all files stored on the CD-rom in directory \emtex\latex and all subdirectories will be copied. Note that the size indication is a measure only for the files specified in that particular .mod file. The effect of installing required modules is not accounted for.

You can install modules at any time, so if you are not sure at a certain moment if you need a specific module, you can try without first.

We hope the set of .mod files we supplied is sufficient for you needs. However, we just might not have anticipated your exact needs. Therefore we encourage you to write your own modules and please send us copies so we can distribute them to others.

3.5.3 Fine-tuning 4TeX to your taste 

After installing 4TeX, or when your preferences have changed you may want to modify the file texuser.<os> and perhaps system.set. Take your time reading these files and adjust them to your own personal needs. We advise you to save a copy of the original settings just in case something goes wrong.

The texuser.<os> and system.set files contain assignments of so called environment variables.6 Environment variables provide a means to adapt 4TeX to your own taste. Both files are self-documenting. The file system.set can be found in the directory ?:\emtex\btm if you did not install the 4TeX batch files to harddisk or in x\texfiles\4system\btm if you installed the 4TeX batch files to hard disk. The file texuser.<os> can be found in the directory x\texfiles\4system.

Using any ascii editor, modify the files texuser.<os> and system.set to suit your personal preferences. Some variables must be given a (new) value, while others can be left empty or unchanged to take on default values. This is indicated for each variable separately in the files texuser.<os> and system.set. The environment settings are used within 4TeX and wrong settings of these variables can result in unpredictable behavior of the 4TeX workbench. If strange errors occur while running 4TeX, check the two files containing the environment settings. For instance specifying a too long PATH variable (i.e. longer than 120 characters) can confuse some programs to the point of crashing.

Because texuser.<os> and system.set are self-documenting we will not explain here how each variable must be set. We will, however, give an example of how to change an environment variable to suit your personal needs.
The file texuser.<os> includes the lines

 : specifies TeX format file.
 :   for LaTeX     : use latex2e
 :   for LaTeX 2.09: use lplain
 :   " with NFSS   : use lplainn
 :   for plain TeX : use plain
 : Format file xx is available if there is a xx.frm file in
 : %EMTEXDIR\compiler.
 : (optional, default: latex2e)
This means that after starting the 4TeX workbench the variable STYLE refers to the TeX format file that will be used when compiling a TeX document. If omitted 4TeX will use as default the LaTeX format file (i.e. latex2e). If you want the plain TeX format to be default you simply use an ascii editor to change STYLE= into STYLE=plain. In this example STYLE=lplain means the old LaTeX 2.09 format will be your default format.

Two environment files files are used to separate general settings from user specific settings. This is especially of interest for network installations of 4TeX where each user has his/her own preferences (i.e. texuser.<os>). The file system.set, however, contains the general settings that should be the same for any (network) user. This also means that the file texuser.<os> can be placed anywhere on any drive, whereas the file system.set always remains in the directory ?:\emtex\btm. You can use the environment variable 4TEXPATH to indicate where 4TeX should look for the file texuser.<os>. If not specified 4TeX will look in the current directory. If you specified e.g., 4TEXPATH=C:\TEXFILES\4SYSTEM, 4TeX will look for texuser.<os> in the directory c:\texfiles\4system.

4TeX will use a shareware version of 4dos. If you have a newer version or even better a registered version of 4dos the variable 4DOSPATH will specify where to find 4dos; e.g., 4TEXPATH=c:\4dos60 will use this 4dos version within 4TeX.

If strange errors occur, check the files texuser.<os> and system.set. Check e.g., in the file texuser.<os> if the following variables are set correctly: EMTEXDIR=... and NETWORK=. Take your time to check all the other variables (they are self-explaining), e.g., check them by looking if the paths and programs you are specifying do exist. After this you are ready to (re)start 4TeX.

3.5.4 Network setup 

For networked installations of 4TeX the following files may need editing:

We will assume that the network you are using is a Novell network, and you want to install 4TeX for network use. Installing 4TeX on other networks is also possible (e.g., on Bayan or Decnet). Start the installation by adapting the file network.btm to your own situation. This file contains the network drive mappings and all other network specific commands used by 4TeX, such as commands for selecting network printers.

Network printers can be made accessible by renaming the files capt*.pr_ to capt*.prd (all files with extension .prd will show up the in the output menu when choosing a print destination). Of course these files have to adapted to your network setup. The versions supplied by 4TeX only show examples of possible solutions as they were implemented on a specific Novell network.

Check in the file texuser.<os> if the following variables are set correctly: EMTEXDIR=... and NETWORK=y. All other variables of texuser.<os> should be correct. file network.btm, needs adjustment if you want to add support for network printers..

Then copy texuser.<os> to one of the directories of the network user (e.g., to g:\texfiles\4system) and adjust this file to the user's needs. Make a 4TeX startup batch file, e.g., tex.bat, containing:

 @echo off
 set 4texpath=g:\texfiles\4system
 REM the environment variable 4texpath specifies the path
 REM where the file texuser.[os] can be found
 set 4DOSPATH=w:\appls\emtex\utils\4dos
 set 4TEXOS=2
 REM drive w: is where TeX is installed, i.e.
 REM directory \appls\emtex. and 4TEXOS stands here for Windows 95
 mode co80
 w:\appls\emtex\utils\4dos\4dos @w:\appls\emtex\btm\4tex.ini
     /c w:\appls\emtex\btm\4tex.btm %1 %2 %3
 REM Note: that should be ONE long line in reality!
 set 4TEXPATH=
 set 4DOSPATH=
 set 4TEXOS=
The network user now starts the 4TeX workbench by simply typing

(with or without parameters). 4TeX will use all user specific information stored in texuser.<os> and run from the network drive.

It is not a good idea to copy 4tex.btm to the directory g:\texfiles\4system. At irregular times updates of 4TeX may be installed on the network. Using your own copy of 4tex.btm deprives you of automatically using the latest version and may cause errors.

3.5.5 Directory set up 

The 4TeX workbench is set up in the directory ?:\emtex and has the following directory structure:

 EMTEX                       EMTEX root directory
   BTM                       4TeX workbench files
       CONVERT               4TeX batch files for conversions
       UTILS                 4TeX batch files for utility menus
   FORMATS                   files for format file generation
   COMPILER                  emTeX compilers plus format information
   LATEX                     LaTeX 2e input files with many subdirs
        ...                  all packages are stored in separate directories
   LATEXALL                  LaTeX 2e input files all in one directory
   INPUTS                    generic input files
       ...                   where possible packages are created
   LATEX209                  LaTeX 2.09 style files
       ...                   where possible packages are created
   BTEXFMTS                  big TeX format files
   HTEXFMTS                  huge TeX format files
   DATA                      emTeX DVI driver configuration files
   TEXFONTS                  fonts
       VF                    virtual fonts
       LASERJET              bitmapped fonts for LaserJet
       DESKJET               bitmapped fonts for DeskJet
       VGA                   bitmapped fonts for VGA screen
       ...                   many printers have their own fonts
   PS                        DVI to PostScript
       FONTS                 PostScript fonts
   TFM                       TeX font Metric files
       ...                   split into groups/families when possible
   TFMALL                    TeX font Metric files all in one directory
   METAFONT                  font generation
       BMFBASES              big Metafont base files
       MFINPUT               Metafont input files
           ...               split into groups when possible
       MFJOB                 Metafont job files
   METAPOST                  Metapost program
       MPINPUTS              Metapost input files
   MISCPROG                  miscellaneous programs
   OS2                       OS2 help files
   PRNDEST                   printer/viewer types and print destinations
   SPELL                     amSpell spell-check program
   DOC                       emTeX and TeX documentation
       ...                   grouped by topic
   TEXSAMPL                  sample TeX files
   UTILS                     TeX related utilities
       GSTOOLS               Ghostscript the PostScript interpreter
       4DOS                  4DOS the command.com replacement
       WIN                   Windows 95/NT programs/utilities
       ...                   many useful Windows/Dos programs
   TEXFILES                  directory for TeX text files
       4SYSTEM               setup files
       BIB                   bibTeX bibliography files
       FONTS                 user generated bitmapped fonts
           LASERJET          bitmapped fonts for LaserJet
           DESKJET           bitmapped fonts for DeskJet
           ...               many other printers
       MF                    user specific Metafont input files
       MP                    user specific Metapost input files
       PSFONTS               user directory for PS fonts
       PICTURES              user directory for pictures
       SPELL                 user specific files for amSpell
       TEXINPUT              user specific style files
       TFM                   user specific font metric files
       VF                    user specific virtual font files

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